CAML is an acronym for Consensus Analysis via Maximum Likelihood estimation and describes a set of functions written in R (R Development Core Team, 2008). The software performs consensus analysis (e.g. Romney, Weller, & Batchelder, 1986) using the maximum likelihood method. CAML users must have the R statistics environment installed. R is available at no cost and runs under UNIX, Windows, and MacOS. 

CAML can be downloaded as R code here.

Please note the quick-start guide for CAML. It provides information concerning the following topics: 

  • Setting up CAML in R
  • Preparing data for CAML
  • Performing basic consensus analysis with CAML
  • Interpreting the CAML output
  • Advanced settings for CAML

CAML may be used for non-commercial purposes at no charge. Although considerable effort was put in developing and testing CAML, there is no warranty whatsoever. We are grateful for comments, questions, or suggestions. Communication concerning CAML should be addressed to 

R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria: 

    Aßfalg, A., & Erdfelder, E. (2012). CAML – Maximum likelihood consensus analysis. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 189–201.

    Romney, A. K., Weller, S. C., & Batchelder, W. H. (1986). Culture as consensus: A theory of culture and respondent accuracy. American Anthropologist, 88, 313–338.